Fire broke out in the nitrocellulose storage room of a paint factory. At around 1 am, the watchman, detected the presence of flames near the room and notified the fire crew and maintenance manager. They arrived within 10 min and stationed an independent tanker vehicle to fight the blaze. They connected the equipment to the fire network and positioned it to protect the other buildings. The fire was very quickly extinguished. Fire-fighters left the site at around 4 am. Damage was limited to the nitrocellulose storage room for several reasons: presence of fire walls and door; a lightweight roof made of non-combustible material; a building location 35 m from all other storage areas and property boundaries; and no storage of combustibles within a fenced perimeter. The building had been locked, and only 500 kg of nitrocellulose were stored. After discussion with the supplier, the factory operator supported the hypothesis of self-ignition of one of the nitrocellulose stock subsequent to excessive degradation due to one or more of the following factors: a chemical substance in storage for too long (over a year); high temperatures accelerating the nitrocellulose degradation; and incomplete closure of a open package, thereby accelerating product decomposition. In order to avoid recurrence of such an accident, corrective measures were adopted: the operator immediately halted the supply of laminated nitrocellulose in favour of a soluble supply in solvent form with concentrations below 25%. Storage of this substance will take place in appropriate premises, equipped with fire detection systems.